Accidental note is any note that does not belong to a certain scale or tonality. For example, see the C major scale:
C, D, E, F, G, A, B
The notes C#, D#, F#, G#, A# are called accidentals, in this case, because they don’t belong to this scale. Coincidentally, as the C major scale does not have any note with sharp (or flat), all the accidents appear with these alterations. But if the concerned scale was E major (E, F#, G#, A, B, C#, D#), the accidents would be the notes F, G, A#, C, D.
The difference between accidental note and sharp
Pay attention that “accidental note” doesn’t mean “sharp”. In most of explanations here in the website we will be using C major scale, so you will hear these terms (accidental and sharp) as they were synonyms, but remember that they are just synonyms in this context of C major. The real definition of accidental note is that thing which does not belong to that concerned scale.
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